Water Irrigation System

What Is A Water Irrigation System?

A water irrigation system is basically a network installation consisting of pipes, fittings, and other devices to channel water under pressure from the water source such as rainwater harvesting tanks, lakes, rivers and basins to the desired irrigable area such as agricultural farms or domestic gardens.

Water irrigation system comprises of two types; the traditional surface irrigation and piped irrigation techniques. Both differ from each other in terms of a few characteristics namely the water flow regime, route direction of the flow, area irrigation rate and external energy required.

Types Of Water Irrigation System

Traditional surface methods require a large canal size to transport the water whereas, in pressurized pipe irrigation system, a small flow of even 1-meter cube per hour can be utilized. In traditional surface irrigation method, the irrigation water is conveyed from the source and then distributed to the field through open canals and ditches by gravity along the field contours. This method is unsuitable for implementation on hillsides with steep slopes as it will cause dangerous landslides or soil runoffs. On the other hand, the piped system conveys and distributes the irrigation water in closed pressurized pipes along the most convenient or shortest route, regardless of the slope and topography of the area.

With traditional surface methods, the water is applied in large volumes per unit of area and enables a simple and direct irrigation over a large area within a short time provided that the water source is not scarce or limited. Piped irrigation system distributes the water at small rates over a large area and thus conserves more water as compared to the former choice. Lastly, piped irrigation systems require a certain pressure of normally 2 to 3 bars, which is provided from a pumping unit or from a supply or rainwater harvesting tank situated at a high point in contrast with the traditional surface method which relies heavily on gravity for operation.

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